Volume 8, Issue 4, July 2020, Page: 172-176
The Relationship Between Resting Heart Rate and Age in Adult Nigerians
Peter Ekpunobi Chime, Department of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, Nigeria
Wilfred Okwudili Okenwa, Department of Surgery, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, Nigeria
Bibiana Oti, Department of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 24, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 10, 2020;       Published: Jul. 17, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajim.20200804.15      View  35      Downloads  33
Abstract
Background: Resting heart rate is related to cardiovascular mortality as well as to all-cause mortality. It is therefore important to know whether resting heart rate changes with age in adults. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between heart rate and age in adult Nigerians. Methods: It was a retrospective study on adult Nigerians attending a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. All the needed data were retrieved from the medical records. Heart rate was calculated from the electrocardiogram and correlated with age. Results: There were 99 cases aged between 20 and 54 years and comprised of 60 males and 39 females. The mean heart rate was 73.40±13.16 beats/minute. Across the various decades, the mean heart rate in beats per minute was 73.46±10.70 in the third decade, 75.52±12.16 in the fourth decade, 72.38±13.91 in the fifth decade, and 71.60±18.77 in the sixth decade of life (p=0.770). Heart rate correlated negatively and weakly with age (r=- 0.034, p=0.736). There were more cases of sinus bradycardia than sinus tachycardia, but the proportion of cases with heart rate outside 60 beats per minute to 100 beats per minute was small. Conclusion: This study showed that resting heart rate did not change with age in young adult and middle-aged Nigerians who had no clinical evidence of heart disease. A greater proportion of them were in normal sinus rhythm.
Keywords
Heart Rate, Age, Sinus Bradycardia, Sinus Tachycardia
To cite this article
Peter Ekpunobi Chime, Wilfred Okwudili Okenwa, Bibiana Oti, The Relationship Between Resting Heart Rate and Age in Adult Nigerians, American Journal of Internal Medicine. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 172-176. doi: 10.11648/j.ajim.20200804.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Hartaigh B. O., Gill T. M., Shah I., Hughes A. D., Deanfield J. E., Kuh D., Hardy R. Association between resting heart rate across the life course and all-cause mortality: Longitudinal findings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) J. Epidemiol. Community Health. 2014; 68: 883–889. doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-203940. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar].
[2]
Nauman J, Janszky I, Vatten LJ, et al. Temporal changes in resting heart rate and deaths from ischemic heart disease. JAMA. 2011; 306: 2579–2587. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
[3]
Fleming S, Thompson M, Stevens R, Heneghan C, Pluddemann A, Maconochie I, Tarassenko L, Mant D. Normal ranges of heart rate and respiratory rate in children from birth to 18 years: a systematic review of observational studies. Lancet. 2011Mar 19; 377 (9770): 1011-1018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789232/.
[4]
Rijnbeek PR, Witsenburg M, Schrama E, et al. New normal limits for the paediatric electrocardiogram. Eur Heart J 2001; 22: 702–11.
[5]
Kostis JB, Moreyra AE, Amendo MT, Di Pietro J, Cosgrove N, Kuo PT. The Effect of Age on Heart Rate in Subjects Free of Heart Disease. Studies By Ambulatory Electrocardiography and Maximal Exercise Stress Test. Circulation 65, No. 1, 1982. 141–145.
[6]
Shigetoh Y, Adachi H, Yamagishi S et al. Higher heart rate may predispose to obesity and diabetes mellitus: 20-year prospective study in a general population. Am. J. Hypertens. 22, 151–155 (2009).
[7]
Ayoka AO, Ogunlade IO, Akintomide O, Akomolafe RO, Ajayi OE. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Young Adult Nigerians. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 29 (June 2014) 063–066.
[8]
Knox JA. The Heart Rate During A Simple Exercise. Br Heart J. 1940; 2 (4): 289–297. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2.4.289.
[9]
Reimers AK, Knapp G, Reimers CD. Effects of Exercise on the Resting Heart Rate: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Interventional Studies. J Clin Med. 2018; 7 (12): 503. Published 2018 Dec 1. doi: 10.3390/jcm7120503.
[10]
Pinto MM Filho, Brant LCC, Padilha-da-Silva JL, et al. Electrocardiographic Findings in Brazilian Adults without Heart Disease: ELSA-Brasil. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; 109 (5): 416-424. doi: 10.5935/abc.20170146.
[11]
Alame AJ, Garg S, Kozlitina J, et al. Association of African Ancestry With Electrocardiographic Voltage and Concentric Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: The Dallas Heart Study. JAMA Cardiol. 2018; 3 (12): 1167–1173. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2018.3804.
[12]
Pinto-Filho MM, Brant LC, Foppa M, Garcia-Silva KB, Mendes de Oliveira RA, de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca M, et al. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota Coding System among Brazilian adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study) Am J Cardiol. 2017; 119 (12): 2081–2087. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.03.043. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar].
[13]
Palhares, D. M., Marcolino, M. S., Santos, T. M. et al. Normal limits of the electrocardiogram derived from a large database of Brazilian primary care patients. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 17, 152 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-017-0572-8.
[14]
Hiss RG, Lamb LE. Electrocardiographic findings in 122,043 individuals. Circulation. 1962 Jun; 25: 947–961. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
[15]
Ding Y, Zhu B, Lin H, Chen X, Shen W. HIV infection and electrocardiogram abnormalities: baseline assessment from the CHART cohort. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Available online 17 March 2020. In Press, Corrected Proof https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.03.005. Accessed on 9/7/2020.
Browse journals by subject